Technologies & Mechanical Water Treatment Katadyn Ceramic
Ceramic filters have a micro porous structure with impregnated silver which delays the growth of bacteria. The pore-size of Katadyn ceramic filters is 0.2 micron (0.0002 mm). Bacteria range in size from 0.2 to 5 micron and like protozoa (1 – 15 micron), are efficiently filtered out. Ceramic filters can be mechanically regenerated and the filter capacity is measurable.
Activated carbon is used for its ability to reduce harmful organic and inorganic substances in the water. It removes unpleasant tastes, odours, chlorine, pesticides (lindane, DDT) and trihalomethanes (THMs). These substances adhere to the large surface area of the activated carbon. Activated carbon granulate cannot be regenerated.
Superfine glassfiber, within two supporting layers, forms a depth filter. Nominal pore size of 0.3 micron mechanically filters all bacteria and protozoa. The flexible glassfiber is pleated resulting in an extremely large surface area and a very high capacity to absorb dirt.
Reverse Osmosis, best known for its use in desalination, is the process of using high pressure to push a solution through a membrane that traps the solute (salt water) on one side and allows the pure solvent (fresh water) to be obtained on the other side.
Chemical water treatment
As one of several 'oxides' of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment. It is effective in eliminating bacteria, viruses and cysts from water. Unlike the other halogens, chlorine dioxide tablets are effective against Cryptosporidium, even in dirty water.
Effective in removing viruses and bacteria, iodinated resin, in conjuction with a cyst filter, is effective for water purification. Micro-organisms in the water are forced into contact with the tightly packed resin, which are bonded to iodine molecules. Iodinated resins leave less residual iodine in the water than iodine tablets. Without an activated carbon post-filtration medium, iodine leaves the water with an unpleasant taste. To eliminate the disadvantages of iodine, Katadyn only uses iodine with activated carbon post-filtration.
Silver ions are attracted to bacteria by polar adsorption. After penetrating the cell membrane, the ions damage the bacteria's DNA, thus preventing further multiplication. The bacteria's respiratory system is attacked and blocked, causing a chain reaction, and as a result the bacteria die.
Chlorine is the most commonly used substance for water treatment worldwide. It works quickly and has a broad range of applications. Chlorine, however, is not suitable for conservation and must be applied in the correct dosage.
Iodine, like chlorine, is a halogen and has a similar spectrum of activity. While it is more pH-independent and more readily storable than chlorine, it is not quite as potent and therefore has a slightly longer contact time. Without an activated carbon post-filtration medium, iodine leaves the water with an unpleasant taste. To eliminate the disadvantages of iodine, Katadyn only uses iodine with activated carbon post-filtration.